Ethical Theory

The ethical theory state clearly that what’s right or wrong depends on the place and time

  • Different social contexts determine different moral guidelines.
  • One society should not judge another by its standards
  • The actual behavior of a society reflects its values better than what it says
  • Different views of right and wrong are not always acceptable
  • Just because they exist doesn’t make them okay

Cultural relativism can be vague and subject to different interpretations

Cultures have to share many “core values.”

 

Animal ethics is a term used to describe human-animal relationships and how animals must be treated. Mostly it includes animal rights, speciesism, wildlife conservation, animal welfare, animal law, the history of animal use, and theories of justice

 

Animal rights advocates are campaigning for no cages, while animal welfares are campaigning for bigger cells.

 

  • Used in Testing, Research, and Training”
  • Procedures methods applied to animals should be designed and performed with their relevance to human or animal health for society and knowledge.
  • The animals must be appropriate species and possess the minimum number required to obtain optimum results.
  • Proper use of animals and minimization of discomfort, distress, and pain was compulsory.
  • Procedures were having appropriate analgesia, sedation, plus anesthesia.

Almost 50 to 100 million animals are used in research each year approximately.

Some are purpose-bred for testing, but many are still caught in the wild.

  • Trends from the 1970s to the 1990s
  • Reduction in dogs numbers up to 100,000
  • Reduction in cats number 75,000 up to 40,000
  • Primate number stable nearly at about 50,000
 

1991

1996

2000

2005

Dogs

1298

606

669

673

Cats

438

173

258

138

G. Pigs

1330

964

23

2

Hamsters

6265

5333

2206

1062

Rabbits

2428

1598

658

129

Primates

2096

2306

2441

1990

  • Two live mammals at least used.
  • One is non-rodent and must be a large animal.
  • Every company release a new drug must test it

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