These are generally pure heavy breeds used in the past for both egg production and their meat. In today’s poultry industry, Plymouth Rocks and Rhode Island Reds, for example, do not produce eggs and meat in high amounts and are not sufficiently efficient. They may still play an essential role in developing countries like Pakistan, India, etc, where constraints occur (no access to hybrids, housing, high temperature, feed supply and feed quality, disease, and hygiene). They will go broody and hatch their eggs. Half will be males when the eggs hatch, and these can be raised and sold for meat. In modern, industrialized (commercial) egg production, the males usually have no value for meat and may have to be destroyed. This makes the female chicks expensive.
These were used for egg production. The famous White Leghorn is a small-bodied, flighty hen (1.6 kg) and lays white-shelled eggs weighing about 56-60 g. It eats only a minimum amount of feed (95 g/day). The Black Australorp is a big hen (2.4 kg) and lays light to dark brown-brown (tinted) shelled eggs. It is docile and naive but eats a lot of feed (130 – 140 g/day), but their meat may be necessary. If these breeds are found in your hometown, they could be valuable and produce table eggs on a commercial layer farm.
Hybrid meat and laying stock
These have been specially selected for either egg production or meat, but not for both. Multiple different breeds have been used to produce a ‘hybrid’ chicken, which can grow to 2.6 kg in 38 days while utilizing only 4.4-4.6 kg of feed. A ‘hybrid’ chicken will lay 90+ eggs every 100-105 days until almost a year old and will not go broody. Ideal conditions and management is required for this high level of performance, whether for meat or eggs. Because of this artificial selection process, these hybrids will produce better than their parents due to ‘hybrid vigor.’ This lasts for only one or two generations. Because poultry farmers do not have access to parent stock, they should not breed using these hybrids but should purchase chicks from a commercial hatchery each time they want new birds.
There are many general management principles that apply to all forms of poultry production. These will be dealt with first. Then we will examine broiler production and egg production separately.
Poultry Breeds classification
All other breeds included:
American: Plymouth Rock, New Hampshire, Rhode Island Red, Holland Delaware, Dominique, Jersy giant, Java, Chantecler, Buckeye, Wyandotte
English: Dorking, Orpington, Cornish, Sussex, Australorp, Red Cap
Mediterranean: Leghorn, Ancona, Minorca, Buttercups, Spanish, B.Andalusian, Catalana Asiatic: Brahmas, Cochin, Langshan, Desi, Aseel, LSB