Turkey (Farming, Breeding, Management, Breeds and Growth)

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Turkey:

  1. Meleagris gallopavo  (modern).
  2. Meleagris ocellata  (historical).

Turkey (Farming, Breeding, Management, Breeds and Growth)
Turkey (Farming, Breeding, Management, Breeds and Growth)

* Turkey is a big bird of poultry. Modern pet turkey descends from wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), which is one of two types of turkey (the genus Meleagris); However, in the past, the separated turkey (Meliagress oscillata) was also domesticated.

Poultry has an important place in Turkey after the duck, Guyana chicken, and quail.

* They make up about 2% of the total chicken population. They are bred for meat only, and their flesh is the thinnest of all domestic avian species.

Western Turkish farming is very popular in the west, and the major producers of Turkey are the United States, Canada, Germany, France, Italy, and the United Kingdom.

The per capita annual consumption of turkey meat in the above countries is 4-8 kg per year.

2004 The estimated world of meat in 2004 was 4.94 million tons.

* Turkeys are large, terrestrial birds with long, long necks, and large fan-shaped tails. They have short, round wings.

The colors of their flying wings are black with gray stripes and are forbidden with white.

Male and female:

Adult Tomas beard usually exceeds 6 inches.

* Tom’s inspired length is 1 inch.

* You can tell the difference between Tomas and Jax by their beards.

Usually, females are younger. They are bold in color.

* Females thunderhead and a neck feather.

* Male turkeys weigh 6.8 to 11 kg.

The goose usually weighs 3.6 to 5.4 kg.

Turkey (Farming, Breeding, Management, Breeds and Growth)
Turkey (Farming, Breeding, Management, Breeds, and Growth)

Identity and terminology

* Male: Tom or Gobler and the young man is Jack.

* Female: Chicken

Polt: Young.

Caronix: A brightly colored fleshy growth on the head and neck, which turns bright red when Tom is excited.

Develop: Immediately of the chin. The skin of the flap appears later.

* Beard: Hair is attached to the skin of the chest and upper part of the neck.

Identity:

drowsiness: A peacock piece of skin that hangs with a turkey beak.

Sprayer: Increased bone spasms on the back of each leg, which can be quite sharp and used for combat.

Laying and management procedures:

  • The chicken egg is white with brown splashes.
  • The clutch size is 4-17 eggs.
  • The incubation period is about 28 days.
  • The weight of an egg is about 85 grams.
  • Turkey egg protein, lipids, carbohydrates, and minerals are 13.1%, 11.8%, 1.7%, and 0.8%, respectively.

Incubation:

Since the incubation period in Turkey is 28 days. There are two methods of incubation.

  1. Natural incubation:

Naturally, hens are good chicks, and broodies can lay 10-15 eggs. To get 60-80% hatchability and healthy poultry, brooding should be done only on fresh eggs.

2.Artificial incubation:

In artificial incubation, the eggs are extracted with the help of incubators. Temperature and temperature and relative humidity are in the setter and hatchery:

Temperature (degrees F) Relative hum Humidity (٪)

Setter: 99.5 61-63

Hatcher:  98.5-99    85-90

Eggs should be replaced daily at hourly intervals. Prevent eggs from accumulating too often to avoid breakage and better hatchability.

Brooding:

  • In turkeys, a period of 0-4 weeks is called a brooding period.
  • However, in winter, the winter period is extended to 5-6 weeks.
  • According to the rule of thumb, Turkey needs twice space as chickens.
  • All-day infrared bulbs or gas brooders or traditional brooding systems are used.
  • The floor space required for 0-4 weeks is 1.5 square feet. Per bird
  • The average mortality rate during this period is 6-10%.
  • The most commonly used dirt equipment for birding is wood sawdust, paddy straw, chopped saws, etc.
  • The thickness of the litter equipment should initially be 2 inches and can be increased to 3-4 inches over time through a gradual increase.
  • Shallow water should be used.
  • The average mortality rate during this period is 6-10%.
  • The most commonly used dirt equipment for birding is wood sawdust, paddy straw, chopped saws, etc.
  • The thickness of the litter equipment should initially be 2 inches and can be increased to 3-4 inches over time through a gradual increase.

Rearing:

Birds To avoid weakness and lameness of legs in free birds, Calstrum should be increased at the rate of 250 grams per week per hen in the form of an oyster shell.

Turkey (Farming, Breeding, Management, Breeds and Growth)
Turkey (Farming, Breeding, Management, Breeds and Growth)

Rearing deep system of nurturing:

  1. It has improved production efficiency.
  2. Better management and disease control.

Breeding:

  • The interaction begins in early spring (January to February).
  • The average age of reproductive maturity for both males and females is about ten months.
  • Male tries to attract a female by “gobbling” and “suffocating” and their tail goes down, their wings come down and drag on the ground, their hind wings stand up, Their heads are thrown back, and their crops are blown up.
  • In natural blends, males; The ratio of females is 1: 5 for medium turkeys and 1: 3 for large varieties with 60-80% hatchability.
  • The nest is depressed.
  • The female pulls the nest and holds 4 to 17.
  • She lays eggs for 25 to 31 days. Girls can walk and feed themselves within 24 hours of hatching.
  • Wild males do not take care of wild hen parents. The females build wild hen nests, lay eggs, and look after the young until next spring.

 

Feeding requirements:

Type of feed age  (Weeks)

6 to 8 turkey starter        (28% protein)

8 to 12                                22% protein

12 to 16                               19% protein

Sixteen weeks to market them.

  • Food should be fed in the feeder and not on the ground.
  • Feeding methods are mesh feeding and pallet feeding.

Turkey (Farming, Breeding, Management, Breeds and Growth)
Turkey (Farming, Breeding, Management, Breeds and Growth)

Turkey Housing:

  • The housing protects turkeys from the sun, rain, wind, predators, and provides comfort.
  • In ar areas, the long axis of the house should run from east to west.
  • The distance between the two houses should be at least 20 meters, and they must be at least 60 to 100 meters away from the other house.
  • The height of the house can vary from 2.6 to 3.3 meters from floor to ceiling
  • The width of the open house is not more than 10 meters.
  • The rainwater should be supplied more than one meter to avoid spraying.
  • Moisture flooring should be affordable, durable, and safe, preferably concrete, with moisture-proof.

Abstract:

  • Turkey Breeder .0 5.0 7.5 2.5
  • Male to female ratio: 1: 5
  • Average egg weight: 65 grams
  • Average daily weight of poult: 50 grams
  • Age at sexual maturity: 30 weeks
  • Egg Average number of eggs: 80-100
  • Incubation period: 28 days
  • Average body weight at 20 weeks: 4.5 – 5 (f) 7-8 (m)
  • Egg production period is 24 weeks
  • Weight: M: 7.5 kg F: 5.5 kg
  • Food efficiency: 2.7 -2.8%
  • Average feed consumption up to age usable: M: 24-26 kg F: 17 – 19 kg
  • Deaths during the brooding period: 3-4 %

Turkey (Farming, Breeding, Management, Breeds and Growth)
Turkey (Farming, Breeding, Management, Breeds, and Growth)

Vaccination:

  • Age at vaccine
  • 7 days old ND-B1 stress
  • 4th and 5th-week Foul Pox
  • Sixth Week ND – (R2B)
  • 8 – 10-week cholera vaccine

The average age of a turkey is about 13 years.

 

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