First of all, quail is a halal bird and its farming is done in whole over the world.
- Quail is initially maintained as a singing bird and for exhibition or for fighting, Quail was domesticated in 200 B.C.
Romans and Greeks
- Roman Era
- Ancient Era (1200 AD)
- In the 12th century, quails were also maintained in different countries of the world for meat and egg production
- First scientific quail breeding was started in Japan (1940-45)
- That is why Japan is known as the first country to maintained Quail
- During the Second World War variety of Quail disappeared
- After 1950 quail farming again initiated in the world
Zoological name of Quail is Coturnix coturnix japonica
Types of quails commonly
1. Blue scaled quails
- Naked nasal area
- Naked or un-feather shanks
- There are about 200 quail breeds are maintained
- Average weight is 120-150 grams sometimes 170-180 grams
- Bobwhite quail are originated from America, and their size is large as compared to Japanese quails
- Average weight is 180-200 gram
- Air sacs absent in neck area (pair)
- Faster growth rate
- Early sexual maturity
Mature body weight
- Average weight is 190 grams
- The better strain produces 300 eggs per year
- In bobwhite quails, max egg production is 230 eggs per year
Average egg weight: 12 grams
Day-old chick weight: 7-9 grams
Male to female ratio: 1:3
Incubation period: 17 days
- Floor space requirement
- Feeder space
- Watering space
Floor space, feeding space, and watering space is always measured in square centimeters; Watering space is half to the feeding area.
Floor vs. Litter rearing System
Litter: 2-3 inches depth is required initially; when the bottom of litter is high then the temperature is automatically raised, so all the pathogenic organism die; pH is also moderate at this temperature
- During the first week, the temperature of the brooder is 35°C or 95F.
- Size of Quail is small (7-8 grams) as compared to chicken, that is why they require 35-37°C temperature in the first week.
- Mortality rate should not be increased up to 3-4%
The temperature of the brooder is reduced by 5F or 3°C weekly e.g.
- Fist week 35-37°C
- The second week 34°C
- The third week 31°C
Sexing of Birds
- Body size
- Color of the chest and lower neck feathers.
- Japanese Quail mature at the age of 6 weeks and start laying eggs
- The average weight of quail egg is 12grams; it contains about 15% protein that is why its mineral profile is very high; Japanese Quail gives 300 eggs per year
- In case of bobwhite quail age of maturity is about 16 weeks and then they start laying eggs; they are more substantial in size and give 50 eggs/annum
- FCR of broiler quail is 2.66, and in case of layer it is above 3
Quail meat 60gm/105 120 gm/200