Biotechnology and its Branches

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Biotechnology

“It is the use of chemical, physical, and genetic engineering techniques and principles through the biological system to produce goods for human beings.”

The target is to get the maximum benefit from the biological system for human beings.

In 1980 due to an increase in population, needs, and demands, scientists had to use techniques to produce more from the same resources. Biotechnology focuses on pure sciences like cell biology, genetics, embryology, microbiology. It also covers modern science.

There are four significant areas of biotechnology: Medicine, Agriculture, Industry, & Environment.

(1): Medicine:

Techniques are used for drug production, gene therapy, genetic testing, & Pharmacogenomics:

(a): Drug Production:

Biotechnology has changed the methods of traditional drug production. First drugs were discovered accidentally or by hit and trial method, but now it is planed.

(b): Gene Therapy:

In gene therapy, scientists produce growth hormones, blood clotting factors, fertility drugs, and insulin. If closure of the fallopian tube, it is a sterile animal; its treatment is possible. The previous method for getting insulin was from the slaughterhouse, but now it is obtained in the lab from E.coli by introducing alphabacter in it. In gene therapy, patients of cancer, and AIDS, are being treated.

(c): Gene Testing:

In gene testing, a direct examination of DNA is carried out. It helps in career screening. It is used for sex determination. Sex differentiation occurs at 8 or 9 days, particularly in the embryo transfer technique. The eight-day embryo has 32 cells. The embryo is split into four parts. One half is used for sex determination, and remaining is used for the production of triplets. Gene testing is also used in Forensic identifying labs.

(d): Agriculture:

  • To increase crop production.
  • To increase the resistance against environmental diseases.
  • To increase the nutritional quality.
  • To decrease the dependence of pesticides of crops
  • To increase the appearance of crops.
  • To increase the shelf life of crops.
  • To produce transgenic and hybrid plants.

(e): Pharmacogenomics:

It is the reaction inheritance character of an individual toward a drug. Genetics of individuals affects the body’s response to medication. With this, they are making tailor-made medicine and safer vaccines.

Branches of Biotechnology

Biotechnology and its branches
        Biotechnology and its branches

Bioinformatics:

It is the inter-disciplinary field between biological problems and the analysis of biological data.

Blue Biotechnology:

It deals with water, aquatic, and marine life.

Green Biotechnology:

It is biotechnology applied to agriculture processes, e.g., techniques to produce hybrid or transgenic plants.

Red Biotechnology:

All therapeutic techniques are included in it, e.g., designing of organisms to produce antibiotics.

White biotechnology:

It is also called industrial biotechnology. This is related to industrial processes.

Reproductive Biotechnology:

Technologies or principles used to focus on the reproductive system to get maximum output and profit from that system.

Techniques start from A.I., embryo transfer (selection criteria for male and female). E.T includes the steps/parameters for selection of embryo, evaluation of embryo, embryo transfer, and allied techniques, e.g., determination of sex.

In vitro embryo production (IVEP): a collection of oocyte and its maturation, semen treatment (capacitation), then in vitro insemination of oocyte, fertilization, then go for fresh embryo transfer or storage.

Cloning, sex determination, synchronization, disease diagnosis during pregnancy, treatment of infected fetus, checking for drugs whether these can pass placental barriers are also included in reproduction biotechnology.

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